Diamond

Catalysis in fuel industry and air pollution control (AGH year 1)

Module description

Lectures
Course overview
The main objective of the course is to bring to the students the knowledge of the catalytic methods in fuel processing and environmental protection. The course is built of two parts:
lectures and laboratories.
Lectures:
During lectures students will be acquainted with the most important issues in adsorption and catalysis as applied to fuel processing and environmental protection. Lectures will concern the following subjects:
• Introduction to the course. The content of the course and requirements for the completion of the course.
• The role of catalytic processes in fuel and energy sector
• Interface phenomena. Fundamentals of adsorption. Physical sorption and chemisorption.
• Porous solids and their characterization.
• The application of adsorbents.
• The structure of catalysts – the role of active component, carrier and promoters.
• Acidic catalysts.
• Dispersion.
• Bi-functional catalysts.
• Monoliths.
• The preparation of catalysts.
• Deactivation and the methods of its limitation.
• Methods of catalysts characterization.
• Selected catalytic processes in fuel industry and air pollution control: DeNOx processes, HDS, catalytic reforming
The lectures are illustrated with industrially relevant case studies: e.g. what are the differences in the structure of HDS catalyst for light and heavy oil fractions, which catalysts are used in industry for DeNOx processes, etc.
During lectures problems are presented to the students – the students discuss the
possible solutions in the current or the following lecture.

Laboratory classes
Students in the laboratory tend to create a new catalysts used for the reduction of
harmful pollutants emitted from combustion gases into the atmosphere. Work on them
is carried out in groups. During the course they receive the necessary information on
the methods of creating Catalysts. In groups they prepare a methodology of creating
Catalysts and after consultation with the professor and under his supervision are
beginning to produce the catalyst according to the rules.
1. Treatment of wastewater by adsorption method
2. The preparation of catalysts
3. Characterization of catalysts: FTIR, XRD
4. The determination of catalytic performance

Preparation of laboratory report
The description of report
Part I (P-I). Team building – The team should elect the leader of the group. Team leader identifies the task for each member of her/his team. The members are responsible for the tasks. The leader, apart from overseeing the task, undertakes also one task her/himself.
You can get 2 points for part P-I.
Part II (P-II). How to write a report?
1. Complete the table (connected with part I):
Team leader: Data:
Member of the team:
Topic of experiment:
Task of the leader:
Tasks of the group members:
Grade:
One of the tasks for the leader is to organize a “brainstorming” – a discussion where all members of the group propose the solutions. You may find the definition of brainstorming process under: http://creatingminds.org/tools/tools_ideation.htm
2. Write a short theoretical introduction (literature background, formule, reactions). Remember to add literature quotations. (about one page)
You can get 4 points for part P-II-2.
3. Describe your experiment.
You can get 3 points for part P-II-3.
4. Show your results (All data (in tables or figures if necessary)).
You can get 2 points for part P-II-4.
5. Discuss your results. You can get 4 points for part P-II-5.
6. Write conclusions and your suggestions how to improve your results (summary)
Here it would be of advantage if you organize a “brainstorming” as well.
Remember to describe “brainstorming” process in part 8.
You can get 4 points for part P-II-6.
7. Write a bibliography.
You can get 1 point for part P-II-2.
You can get a maximum 20 points.
8. Describe on a separate page (ca 1 page) how you carried out 1)
“brainstorming” process and 2) how the teamwork functioned. This will not be assessed numerically, but it is an obligatory part to put into the report.
Example of the summary report – preparation of catalyst, characterization and testing:
i) Literature review – 1) discuss 5-10 newer articles (preferably published during last 5 years,
concerning preparation of catalysts for DeNOx reaction; 2) discuss commercial DeNOx catalysts.
ii) Taking into account the literature information, propose the type and method of preparation of your catalyst (brainstorming!!!). Prepare a list of proposed catalysts e.g. based on activated carbons and comment on the advantages of a catalysts proposed by your group. Contact the teacher, present your list and discuss which catalyst should be prepared.
If your suggestions are not possible to be realized (on cost or other grounds), you will have to prepare another proposal.
3. Describe your experimental work step by step
– Add all calculations, spectra, diffractograms, etc.
– Include:
i) details of your preparation; if you have any special observation, please
add.
ii) characterization – results (XRD, IR) – diffractograms / spectra with
interpretation, please add appropriate literature quotations.
iii) catalytic tests – give results of catalytic performance.
4. Compare your results with at least 3 relevant examples in scientific publications (about one page).
5. Give conclusions: e.g.my catalysts is better, than……, is worse than……. The possible reason could be……
Suggest improvement to your catalysts.
Remember about the description of “brainstorming” and teamwork parts. The  question for ‘brainstorming” in “Catalyst preparation and characterization” may be e.g.: Which new catalyst(s) may be of advantage for DeNOx? What changes in the preparation method of catalysts described in literature I would like to introduce? How would I like to prepare a cat xx?
You may also propose your own questions for brainstorming relevant to the subject.

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