Diamond

Biofuels (IST year 2)

Module description

Objectives
Learn the production processes, properties and use of solid, liquid and gaseous biofuels. Understand the technical, economic and environmental impacts of biofuels production and use.

Program
1. A strategic overview: energy policiesglobal, European and Portuguese perspectives; the importance of biomass and biofuels.
2. Fuels and combustion; fuels
standards and specifications. Technologies and combustion calculations. Biofuels vs. fossil fuels.
3. Biofuels role within the renewable energies; Portuguese and
European legislation framework. Feedstocks (forest biomass, dedicated crops, energy crops in areas with marginal conditions) and yields. Agricultural and industrial waste raw materials. Major technological challenges; the biorefinery concept. Ecoefficiency and sustainability of biofuels: ecological, environmental, economical and sociological issues.
4. First generation biofuels. Production processes, properties and use of solid, liquid (vegetable oils, biodiesel, bioethanol) and gaseous (biogas)
biofuels.
5. Second and third generation biofuels:
5.1Residue
Derived Fuel (RDF)
5.2Biofuels produced by chemical and thermochemical routes: hidrogenated vegetable oils (HVO); FischerTropsch (FT) fuels: Biomass gaseification and pyrolysis. FT diesel and wood diesel. Biohydrogen, biomethanol, mixed alcohols. Gases from wood despolimerization.
5.3Biofuels produced by biochemical routes: enzymatic degradation of cellulosic materials: technological advances and future perspectives. Fatty acids and oils produced by photosynthetic and heterotrophic unicellular organisms. Scaleup considerations. Carbon dioxide scrubbing by cyanobacteria and microalgae.
6. Biorefineries: integration of biological, chemical and thermal processes. Coproducts. Current examples and future developments.
7. Integrated process strategies. Industrial examples of wastes use as fuels.
8. Discussion of short term research needs to meet medium term Energy Strategic Policies.

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